Anti-ship missiles 3M-54E/3M-54E1 are designed to engage surface ships of all classes and types, both single and as part of a group, in conditions of strong electronic and fire countermeasures. The missile's combat use is ensured in any area of the World Ocean at any time of day and year, practically in any weather conditions.
Developer - ICB "Novator" Ekaterinburg.
Missiles 3M-54E/3M-54E1 in various configurations are included:
- Kalibr-PLE missile system for arming submarines (export designation "Club-S"),
- Kalibr-NKE rocket system for arming surface ships (export designation "Club-N").
- The Kalibr-M mobile missile system (export designation "Club-M");
- Aircraft-based missile weapon system "Calibre-A" ("Club-A").
The integrated missile systems "Calibre" are designed to engage a wide range of land, sea and underwater targets.
The Caliber-NKE and Caliber-PLE rocket systems are part of the missile systems:
- combat vehicles:
- a universal control system (SU) for a missile system,
- loading facility kit.
- universal ground equipment complex.
Availability of missiles for various purposes as part of Calibre systems, as well as a single universal control system (SU) of the missile system allows you to vary the set of missiles on carriers depending on the task in hand and the specific combat situation.
Rockets of the "Caliber-PLE" complex are launched from regular torpedo vehicles of 533 mm caliber submarine from a depth of 30-40 m, and the "Caliber-NKE" complex - from sub-deck unified vertical PU 3C-14E or deck inclined SS-14PE. Rockets 3M-54E and 3M-54E1 of the "Calibr-NKE" complex are distinguished by a special transport and launch glass (TPS) and are designated 3M-54TE and 3M-54TE1, respectively.
The Kalibr-A rocket weapon system was first presented at IDEX-2007 (Abu Dhabi, UAE). The 3M-54AE and 3M-54AE1 aircraft-based missiles have no launch engine and are placed in a transport and launch container (see image), from which they are launched after being dropped from the launch vehicle (see diagram).
Club-K missile weapon container system is designed to engage surface and ground targets with 3M-54TE, 3M-54TE1 and 3M-14TE cruise missiles. Club-K missile system can be equipped with coastal positions, surface ships and vessels of various classes, railway and automobile platforms. The technical facilities of the complex are placed in a standard 40-foot sea container.
Functionally, Club-K complex consists of Universal Launch Module (ULCM), Combat Control Module (MCM) and Power and Life Support Module (LSM). Universal Launch Module (see photo 1, photo 2, photo 3) is designed for preparation and launch of rockets from transport and launch containers, it accommodates a lifting launcher for 4 missiles.
The first foreign customer of the Calibre-NKE rocket complex was India. The complex is installed on frigates of project 11356 (type "Talwar" - see photo) built by Indian Navy at the Baltic Plant (St. Petersburg). On July 19, 2000, at the Admiralty Shipyards Plant (Saint-Petersburg) the 877EKM DPL built for the Indian Navy was launched, where the Calibre-PLE weapons system was installed. On the other boats purchased by India earlier, the Calibre-plane is being installed as part of the repair and modernization work being carried out at Zvezdochka (Severodvinsk) and Admiralty Shipyards. The Caliber-PLE complex is part of the armament of the 636 project DPLs being built for the Chinese Navy. The Kalibr-NKE complex is being armed with Project 21956 squadrons of minesweepers developed by the Northern Design Bureau (St. Petersburg).
According to the US/NATO classification, the 3M-54E/3M-54E1 missile was designated SS-N-27.
The 3M-54E and 3M-54E1 anti-ship missiles have almost identical basic configuration and are as unified as possible. The missiles are made according to the normal aerodynamic scheme with a trapezoidal opening wing, the scope of 3.1m. The 3M-54E rocket (see the scheme) consists of a launch stage, a subsonic march stage and a supersonic solid-fuel combat stage. The combat unit is of a penetrating type with an explosion at an optimal depth. The 3M54E1 missile has two stages. Refusal to use the third supersonic stage made it possible to equip the 3M54E1 missile with a more powerful combat unit and increase the missile's range. Due to its shorter length, 3M54E1 can be placed in shortened torpedo vehicles.
The launch stage provides launch and acceleration of the rocket, equipped with a solid fuel single-chamber rocket engine, similar to the engine cruise missile 3M-10 "Grenade". In the tail end of the launch stage is placed grating stabilizers (see photo). The launch is provided: from 0° to 85° north latitude and from 0° to 75° south latitude, at any time of the year and day, in simple and difficult weather conditions, the sea excitement in the area of the launch up to 5 points, in the target area up to 7 points, air temperature from -40° to +50° C, relative humidity up to 98% at a temperature of +35° C, when maneuvering the ship on the course and speed and the inclination of the rocket in any direction, the speed of the ship to the maximum, the wind speed of any direction in the area of the start, on the route of the flight and the target up to 20m / s, the target speed in the compound up to 30 knots, single ships - up to 40 knots.
The marching stage - provides flight on the main section of the trajectory with near-sonic speed, is equipped with a small-size turbojet engine TRDD-50B ("product 37-01E"). TRDD-50B was developed by Omsk Engine Building Design Bureau (OMKB OJSC) and unified for all rockets of Kalibr complex. TRDD-50B is a dual-circuit twin-shaft turbojet engine with coaxial shafts of low and high pressure circuits, equipped with a ring semi-combustion chamber. High pressure circuit - axial compressor (one axial stage and one diagonal) and single-stage axial turbine. Low pressure circuit - single stage fan with wide chord blades and single stage axial turbine. Reliable engine start is provided in the whole range of external conditions from -50°C to +60°C. The length of TRDD-50B is 800 mm, diameter - 300 mm, thrust - 270 kgf.
The onboard missile control system 3M-54E / 3M-54E1 is based on the autonomous inertial navigation system AB-40E (designed by the State Research Institute of Instrument Engineering). Homing on the final section of the trajectory is carried out with the help of noise-protected active radar homing head ARGS-54. The ARGS-54 is developed by "Radar-MMS" company. (St. Petersburg) and has a maximum range of 65 km. The length of the head - 70cm, diameter - 42cm and weight - 40kg. ARGS-54 can function at sea disturbance up to 6 points.
After the launch of the 3M-54E / 3M-54E1 rocket and a set altitude of about 150 meters there is a separation of the launch accelerator, opening the air intake, the launch of the second stage turbojet engine march and wings opening, then the rocket is reduced to a height of 15-20 meters above sea surface. In the marching section of the trajectory, the missile moves at near-sonic speed under the control of an inertial system according to the target designation data entered in its memory before launch. To reduce the probability of intercepting 3M-54E / 3M-54E1 missiles, the onboard control system can lead the missile to the target from a given direction on an optimal trajectory bypassing the enemy islands and air defense facilities (see diagram). In addition, when attacking large surface targets, multiple missiles can be launched in volley, which will come to the target from different directions.
At a distance of about 30-40 km from the target, the missile makes a "slide" and turns on the -54 ARGS (see diagram). After detection and capture of the target by the homing head at the missile 3M-54E separation of the second stage and begins to work a third solid fuel combat stage, which develops a speed of up to 1000 m / s. At the end of the flight, which is about 20 km long, the 3M-54E combat stage is reduced to a height of 10 m. At the two-stage PKR 3M-54E1 the flight on the whole trajectory is carried out at subsonic speed, and just before the target is carried out a special zigzag counter-rocket maneuver. The number of simultaneously fired targets -2, the number of missiles in the salvo - 8, the interval between launches - 5-10s.
Prelaunch preparation of rockets 3M-54E / 3M-54E1, the formation and commissioning of the flight task is a universal control system (SU) missile system 3R-14N. It is an automated system that operates in real time as part of the combat information and control system (BIUS) of the launch vehicle. The Demand-M BIOS developed by JSC NPF Meridian is installed on project 11356 ships. The Require-M BIS is an open distributed adaptive computing system. Pairing of the 3R-14N missile system with the BIUS is carried out through a digital channel of the local network with the help of special interface devices. According to the target designation and commands from the BIOS "Require-M" and the navigation system of the carrier ship SU rocket system produces data for firing, manages the prelaunch preparation and launch of missiles for various purposes from the complex, as well as routine inspection of systems and missiles. Information on the status of the missile system, the availability of ammunition, plans for its use, control commands are transmitted in graphical and tabular form to the automated workstations (AWS) BIUS "Require-M". This provides centralized control of all weapon systems of the ship in order to optimize their use in solving various combat tasks, including the management of combat operations against enemy surface ships. All the instruments in the missile system's control system (except for the missile weapon control panel) are unmanned, maintenance-free, spray and waterproof. The equipment is fire- and explosion-proof and does not require cooling during operation.
Regulatory maintenance of missiles in the process of storage at the base and their preparation for loading on the carriers provides a universal complex of ground equipment from the complex.
|Maximum firing range, km||220 (20 - supersonic section)||300|
|Minimal range of fire, km.||12.5||12.5|
|Flight speed, M.||0.6-0.8 (up to 3 at the end site)||0.6-0.8|
|Start weight (with starting engine), kg||1951||1570|
|Starting engine weight, kg||372||372|
|Weight of combat unit, kg||200||450|
As a technical position was used Pl.105 GCP-4 (Kapustin Yar), created earlier for missiles 8K95 and 8K98, which had an assembly and test case with all necessary equipment and a laboratory building. On pl. 105 all tests and prelaunch checks of the rocket in the vertical position of the container, after which the launcher in camping position was moved to Pl. 84 for the production of launches. An underground command post in the centre of the site was used to house the equipment and the personnel directly involved in the launch of the missile.
On 4 December 1966, the first launch tests of the missile were carried out, confirming the possibility of switching to the LKI. February 9, 1967 the successful first flight test of the missile on the functioning of its systems was carried out, which served as a transition to the State Tests. The final stage was carried out as a part of 3 launchers 15U59, 15H809 combat control machine, 15B51 position preparation machine, communication center consisting of 3 machines, two diesel power plants and transport and docking machines 15T79, 15T81, 15T84, 15T21P1, both in single launches and with working out the duty mode of the whole complex.
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