The Bal-E mobile coastal missile system with the X-35 anti-ship missile was developed by order of the Russian Navy in the late 1990s.
The movable coastal missile system (SLCM) "Bal-E", equipped with anti-ship cruise missiles (SOCM) of X-35 (X-35E) type is intended for use:
- control of strait zones and territorial waters;
- protecting naval bases, strategic coastal infrastructure and other coastal military facilities;
- protection and stability of coastal areas;
- protection of the coastline in airborne and dangerous areas;
- protection of maritime communications;
- gaining dominance over the sea within the missile kill zone.
The combat application of the complex is provided in simple and difficult weather conditions day and night with full autonomy of guidance after launch in the conditions of fire and electronic counteraction of the enemy.
The complex consists of:
- Self-propelled Command and Communication Center (SCCP) (see photo ) - up to 2. The command post provides target reconnaissance, target designation and optimal target distribution between launchers. Availability of active and passive high-precision target detection channels in the complex allows for flexible strategy of target detection, including covert ones.
- self-propelled launcher (SPS) (see photo1, photo2 ) - up to 4
- transport and loading machine (TPM) (see photo ) - up to 4
- communication machine - 1
The construction structure and equipment of the complex ensure its high autonomy and high efficiency:
- active and passive radar channels are intended for detection, detection, classification and tracking of targets against active and passive interference;
- two separated radar channels allow to solve triangulation tasks in passive radar mode;
- control equipment provides optimal target distribution between launchers;
- eight missiles are placed on each of the four self-propelled launchers, which allows hitting the target with single launches and volleys in various combinations with high total firepower;
- a special communications vehicle provides the ability to receive operational information from superior command posts and external reconnaissance and target designation facilities.
The configuration of the complex and the number of delivered as part of the complex are determined by the customer's requirements. Instead of the self-propelled chassis MAZ-7930, it is possible to use other types of chassis, including the lightweight version of the complex, characterized by high cross-country ability and maneuverability.
The effectiveness of engagement of naval groups and individual ships (see the scheme of application) is achieved by the use of PCR with an active interference-proof homing head in the final section of the trajectory, as well as firing, as single missiles and volleys from any launcher in autonomous control mode when receiving target designation from external sources, and single missiles and volleys from different launchers in a centralized control. The salvo of the complex can include up to 32 missiles. Such a salvo can provide failure of a combat mission of a large ship attack group, landing party or convoy of the enemy. The concealment of combat positions is ensured by the ability to conduct combat operations in the presence of artificial and natural obstacles in the direction of firing (launch bearing).
Centralised firing control can be implemented by the use of a self-propelled command and communication centre (SPCS), which provides target designation and optimal target distribution between the launchers depending on their combat readiness and location in a combat position. The presence of high-precision active and passive radar detection channels allows for a flexible detection strategy, including covert detection. There is also a possibility of receiving operational information from superior command posts and external reconnaissance and target designation facilities, as well as from individual launchers.
The system of combat control over the means of the complex has been implemented using digital methods for the transmission of all types of messages, automated establishment of communication, processing of messages and their distribution, and classification of information with guaranteed persistence.
Availability of night vision devices, navigation, topographic reference and orientation equipment in the JPCS and SPU allows the complex to quickly change starting and reloading positions after the combat mission at any time of day and in any weather conditions, as well as to relocate to a new combat area. The time to deploy the complex at the new position is 10 minutes.
Availability of the PKR ammunition kit on transport and loading vehicles makes it possible to reload the launchers (in 30-40 minutes) after reloading the launchers, which increases the firepower and combat efficiency of the complex.
Electrical power supply to the systems of each vehicle in combat position is provided by an autonomous or external power source.
Application of additional target designation means on the basis of radar patrol helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles allows increasing the range and accuracy of target detection. BAL-E can be equipped with passive jamming systems, which will significantly increase the invulnerability of the complex to controlled weapons of the enemy in dual situations. Other areas of modernization are also under consideration.
Placing the equipment in protected stations on the chassis of high cross-country ability gives the complex facilities mobility and ensures combat application in coastal zones of all regions in conditions of radioactive, chemical and bacteriological contamination of airspace in the combat zone.
|Range of missile launch range depending on modification, km||5...130; (7...260 for the X-35E)|
|Distance of the starting position from the shoreline, km.||up to 10|
|Deployment position height above sea level, m||between 0 and 1000|
|Deployment time, mines||10|
|Number of rockets in salvo||up to 32|
|The total ammunition of the complex, missiles, pcs.||up to 64|
|Missile launch interval, s||3|
|- coach, man||6|
|- highway speed, km/h||60|
|- off-road speed, km/h||20|
|Operating conditions of the complex:|
|- ambient air temperature, °C||between -40 and +50|
|- ambient relative humidity at +35°C||up to 98%|
|- true wind speed of any direction in the start area, m/s||up to 20|
|- operating weather conditions||any (rain to 4 mm/h, snow, fog)|
According to the data as of 17.11.2010, Rosoboronexport specialists also offered the Bal-E coastal missile system to foreign customers. The maximum range of the X-35E missile he used was 120-130 km.
During 2011, some officers of the coastal missile division of the Caspian Flotilla studied the new mobile coastal missile system "Bal-E" at special courses of the manufacturing plant.
For the creation of the Bal-E Coastal Missile Complex, by Presidential Decree No. 669 of 23.05.2011 a group of employees of the Tactical Missile Arms Corporation was awarded state awards and honorary titles.
For their great contribution to the development, creation and production of special equipment and many years of conscientious work, the Order of Merit for the Fatherland Medal, 2nd Class, was awarded to Vladimir Avrutskiy, Deputy Director General for Quality, Vitaly Klimchenko, Head of the Department of Nonprofit Organization of the Design Bureau, and Yuri Samoshkin, Leading Designer of the Design Bureau.
For merits in the field of design activity and many years of conscientious work, the honorary title "Honoured Designer of the Russian Federation" was awarded to Viktor Khaidukov, Deputy Head of Department - Head of Department of 110 Design Bureau.
For services in the field of mechanical engineering and many years of conscientious work, the honorary title "Honored Machine Builder of the Russian Federation" was awarded to the head of KIS Vladimir Kartoshkin.
In 2014, the Crimea was transferred to the coastal anti-ship complexes "Bal" from the 11th Separate Coastal Missile and Artillery Brigade of the Coastal Troops of the Black Sea Fleet (stationed in the village of Utash near Anapa).
The starting export customer of the complex "Ball" was to be Libya, but because of the civil war that began in the country in March 2011, President Dmitry Medvedev by his decree imposed an embargo on the supply of military products.
The Ball complex is operated by the Vietnamese armed forces.
Interest in the complex was shown by representatives of the armed forces of Azerbaijan and Venezuela.
- БЕРЕГОВОЙ РАКЕТНЫЙ КОМПЛЕКС БАЛ-Э. Рекламный разворот. ОТКРЫТОЕ АКЦИОНЕРНОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО "НАУЧНО-ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННОЕ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЕ "КАЛУЖСКИЙ ПРИБОРОСТРОИТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАВОД "ТАЙФУН". ОТКРЫТОЕ АКЦИОНЕРНОЕ ОБЩЕСТВО КОНЦЕРН МОРИНФОРМСИСТЕМА-АГАТ. Первая половина второго десятилетия ХХI века.
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- Комплекс «Бал-Э» поступил на вооружение берегового ракетного подразделения Каспийской флотилии. [Электронный ресурс]. Дата обновления: 02.12.2011г. // URL: http://www.armstrade.org/includes/periodics/news/2011/1202/103010603/detail.shtml (дата обращения: 20.11.2018 г.).
- За создание берегового ракетного комплекса «Бал-Э» группа работников ОАО «Корпорация «ТРВ» удостоена государственных наград. [Электронный ресурс]. Дата обновления: 09.11.2011 г. // URL: http://www.armstrade.org/includes/periodics/news/2011/0609/12408463/detail.shtml (дата обращения: 20.11.2018 г.).
- Венесуэла получит на вооружение российские береговые ракетные комплексы. [Электронный ресурс]. Дата обновления: 17.11.2010 г. // URL: https://topwar.ru/2302-venesuyela-poluchit-na-vooruzhenie-rossijskie-beregovye-raketnye-kompleksy.html (дата обращения: 20.11.2018 г.).
- Азербайджан хочет скрасить себе вид на море. [Электронный ресурс]. Дата обновления: 26.05.2014 г. // URL: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2479531 (дата обращения: 20.11.2018 г.).
- В Крыму размещены противокорабельные комплексы 'Бал'. [Электронный вариант]. Дата обновления: 18.03.2018 г. // URL: https://missilery.info/news/v-krymu-razmeshcheny-protivokorabelnye-kompleksy-bal (дата обращения: 20.11.2018 г.).
- Мясников Виктор. Корпорация "Тактическое ракетное вооружение" совершила прорыв. [Электронный ресурс]. Дата обновления: 26.08.2011 г. // URL: http://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2011-08-26/10_breakthru.html (дата обращения: 23.11.2018 г.)