High-precision cruise missile 3M-14E is designed to engage in simple and complex meteorological conditions day and night stationary (sedentary) land and sea targets. Typical targets for the missile 3M-14E are ground control points, weapons and fuel depots, airfield and port facilities.
3M14E rockets in various configurations are included in the composition:
- Kalibr-PLE missile system for arming submarines (export designation "Club-S"),
- Kalibr-NKE rocket system for arming surface ships (export designation "Club-N").
- The Kalibr-M mobile missile system (export designation "Club-M");
- Aircraft-based missile weapon system "Calibre-A" ("Club-A").
Integrated missile systems "Caliber" are designed to engage a wide range of land, sea surface and underwater targets in conditions of intensive fire and electronic counteraction of the enemy. All the complexes have a single combat vehicle:
- anti-ship missiles 3M-54E, 3M-54E1,
- high-precision cruise missiles to engage ground targets 3M-14E,
- Anti-submarine missiles 91RET2 ("Calibre NCE") and 91RET1 ("Calibre-PLE")
Availability of missiles for various purposes as part of Calibre systems, as well as a single universal control system (SU) of the missile system allows you to vary the set of missiles on carriers depending on the task in hand and the specific combat situation.
Rockets of the "Caliber-PLE" complex are launched from regular torpedo vehicles of 533 mm caliber submarine from a depth of 30-40 m, and the "Caliber-NKE" complex - from sub-deck unified vertical PU 3C-14E or deck inclined SS-14PE. The missile 3M-14TE of the "Calibr-NKE" complex is distinguished by a special transport and launch glass and is designated 3M-14TE. Tests of the 3M-14TE rocket as part of the Caliber-PLE complex were completed on 18.09.2004 in the Baltic Sea area.
The Kalibr-A rocket weapon system was first presented at IDEX-2007 (Abu Dhabi, UAE). The aircraft-based 3M-14AE rocket is part of the Su-35 attack aircraft's weaponry (up to 3 on board) and is planned for the MiG-35 fighter aircraft. The 3M-14AE does not have a launch engine and is placed in a transport and launch container (see image), from which it is launched after being dropped from the launch vehicle.
Club-K Missile Weapon Container System is designed to engage surface and ground targets with 3M-54TE, 3M-54TE1 and 3M-14TE cruise missiles. Club-K missile system can be equipped with coastal positions, surface ships and vessels of various classes, railway and road platforms. The technical facilities of the complex are placed in a standard 40-foot sea container.
Functionally, Club-K complex consists of a universal start module (USM), combat control module (MCU) and power supply and life support module (LPM). The USM (see Photo 1, Photo 2, Photo 3) is designed to prepare and launch missiles from transport and launch containers and accommodates a lifting launcher for 4 missiles.
According to US/NATO classification, missile 3M14 was designated SS-N-30.
Cruise missile 3M-14E (see photo) complexes "Caliber-PLE", "Caliber-NKE", "Caliber-M" is equipped with a solid propellant launch engine in the tail part of which are located grating stabilizers. The TRDD-50B turbofan engine ("Product 37", 37-01E) is a small-size two-circuit turbojet of disposable application, unified for all Kalibr missiles, developed by the Omsk Engine Building Design Bureau (see photo). It is produced by NPO Saturn.
The 3M-14E rocket is equipped with a combined guidance system. Control of the rocket in flight is fully autonomous. The onboard control system is based on the autonomous inertial navigation system AB-40E (developed by the State Research Institute of Instrument Engineering). The missile control system includes a radio altimeter of the RVE-B type (developed by UPKB Detail) and a receiver of satellite navigation system signals (GLONASS or GPS). The radio altimeter provides flight in the mode of terrain rounding due to precise keeping the flight altitude: over the sea - no more than 20 m, over land - from 50 to 150 m (when approaching the target - a decrease to 20 m).
The missile flight follows a predetermined route, in accordance with intelligence data regarding target position and the availability of air defence assets. The missiles are able to overcome the zones of the developed air defense system of the enemy, which is provided by extremely low altitudes of the flight (with the rounding of the terrain) and the autonomy of guidance in the "silence" mode on the main area. Correction of the missile's flight path in the marching section is carried out based on data from the satellite navigation subsystem and the terrain correction subsystem. The operating principle of the latter is based on comparing the terrain of a particular area where the missile is located with reference maps of the terrain along the route of its flight, previously stored in the memory of the on-board control system. Navigation is performed on a complex trajectory, the missile has the ability to bypass strong enemy air defense / missile defense zones or difficult terrain - by entering into the flight specification of the coordinates of the so-called points of rotation of the route (up to 15 reference points) (see diagram trajectory).
Homing in the final section of the trajectory is carried out with the help of noise-protected active radar homing head ARGS-14E, effectively emitting low-profile small targets on the background of the underlying surface. Head ARGS-14E with diameter - 514 mm and weight 40 kg is developed in JSC "NPP Radar MMS". (Saint-Petersburg), has an angle of view on azimuth (bearing) of ±45°, on the angle of place - from +10° to -20°. The detection range of a typical target is about 20 km. Exceptional maneuverability allows with high accuracy to bring the missile on target.
The 3M-14E missile is equipped with a powerful 450 kg high-explosive high-explosive combat unit with an air blast option. A variant of the missile with a cassette warhead equipped with shrapnel, blast or cumulative attack elements for hitting square and long targets is developed.
According to published data, the missile's flight range, depending on the type of combat equipment is up to 2600 km. The flight range of the export version is limited to 300 km.
|Rocket||3M-14E / 3M-14AE|
|Hull diameter, m:||0.533|
|Starter weight, kg||1770 / 1400|
|Weight BC, kg||450|
|Launch range, km:||2600 (300)|
|Flight altitude, m
- over the sea
- above ground
50 - 150
|Speed, m/s:||180 - 240|
|Launch height, m||500 - 11000 (for 3M-14AE)|
|Angles of approach to the target, hail.||+/- 180|
|Marshal engine 37-01E|
|Maximum traction, kgf||450|
|Specific fuel consumption at maximum mode, kg/kgf*h||0,71|
|Dry weight, kg||82|
|Used fuel||T-1 (aviation kerosene), T-6, T-10 (decylin), TS-1, RT|
As a technical position was used Pl.105 GCP-4 (Kapustin Yar), created earlier for missiles 8K95 and 8K98, which had an assembly and test case with all necessary equipment and a laboratory building. On pl. 105 all tests and prelaunch checks of the rocket in the vertical position of the container, after which the launcher in camping position was moved to Pl. 84 for the production of launches. An underground command post in the centre of the site was used to house the equipment and the personnel directly involved in the launch of the missile.
On 4 December 1966, the first launch tests of the missile were carried out, confirming the possibility of switching to the LKI. February 9, 1967 the successful first flight test of the missile on the functioning of its systems was carried out, which served as a transition to the State Tests. The final stage was carried out as a part of 3 launchers 15U59, 15H809 combat control machine, 15B51 position preparation machine, communication center consisting of 3 machines, two diesel power plants and transport and docking machines 15T79, 15T81, 15T84, 15T21P1, both in single launches and with working out the duty mode of the whole complex.
- Энциклопедия "Оружие и технологии России". 2001г.
- Новый "Калибр" авиационного оружия: "Новатор" анонсировал авиационные варианты крылатых ракет типа CLUB.
- 37-01Э /АО ОДК/