The development of a light towed jet launcher for the launch of 107mm turbojet shells was conducted in China by plant N 847. In 1963, the new system was successfully tested and adopted by the People's Liberation Army of China (PLA) under the designation of Type 63. In the early 1980s, the PLA infantry regiment had six units of this system. They were later replaced by more powerful 130-mm multiple rocket launchers. Currently, a small number of Type 63 units of various modifications are in service with the Airborne Troops, Mountain Rifles and mobile PLA units.
In addition to the towed version of the Type 63, which is the main unit, there were developed and produced: a lightweight version of the Type 63-1, self-propelled MLRS "Type 81" based on a light truck (4×4) with a compartment for carrying a set of 12 rounds, single barrel launcher Type 85 on a tripod carriage for special forces, as well as for placement on small ships and boats.
This cheap and relatively efficient system was exported to Syria, Albania, Vietnam, Cambodia, Zaire, Pakistan, Afghanistan and several other countries. Licensed production of the Type 63 has been organized in Iran, DPRK (in the early 1960s (more likely by the end of the first half of the 1960s) North Korea is starting production of a variant of the Chinese Type 63 rocket launcher for 107 mm rounds) and South Africa (Mechem Developments) - see the image gallery of different variants of the system.
The system includes a towed launcher and 107mm turbojet uncontrollable projectiles.
The launcher is similar in design to a conventional artillery gun and consists of a package of guides, lifting and turning mechanisms, sights, electrical equipment. and a lightweight carriage. The guide package contains 12 smoothbore tubes, arranged in three rows of four barrels each. The package is mounted on the upper carriage machine, on which the sights, lifting and rotating equipment are also mounted. With these mechanisms, the guides can be guided in the vertical plane in the range of angles from 0° to +60° and in the horizontal plane ±15°. The lower machine of the carriage has two sliding tubular bases and two folding front stops, which provide sufficient stability of the starting unit when shooting.
Single-axle undercarriage with automotive-type wheels allows towing the launcher at sufficiently high travel speeds. If necessary, the launcher can be rolled over on the battlefield by five people.
Shots are fired by 107-mm single-stage turbojet uncontrollable projectiles, which are stabilized in flight by rotation around the longitudinal axis. The jet engine has a combustion chamber with a powder throwing charge - seven cylindrical checkers with axial channels. Pyrozapal is used to ignite the powder charge. The rotation is created by the flow of the jet engine powder gases through six nozzles at the stern of the projectile, located at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the projectile. The firing is controlled by a remote control.
The main types of ammunition are:
- Shrapnel and blast projectile;
- high-explosive fragmentation projectile;
- Incendiary projectile (combat unit is equipped with a white phosphorous charge);
- Radio interference projectile;
The fragmentation fragmentation projectile combat unit is similar in design to an artillery shell and is loaded with an explosive charge, using a contact fuse and an additional detonator to detonate it. The detonator wraps itself into the nose hole in the projectile before firing.
The Mechem Developments projectile warhead contains ready-made steel balloon hitting elements.
Depending on the type, the projectiles are between 760 and 838 mm long and weigh about 18.8 kg.
|Number of guides||12|
|Weight of projectile, kg||18|
|Maximum range of fire, km||8.5|
|Weight of launcher in combat position, t||0.611|
|Dimensions of the launcher in camping position, m||2.6*1.4*1.2|
|The duration of the volley, s||7-9|
|Recharging time, min||3|
- Шунков В.Н. "Ракетное оружие" .-Мн.: ООО "Попурри", 2001- 528с.
- FAS :: Type 63 107mm Rocket Launcher
- Chinese Defence Today :: 107 mm Multiple Rocket Launcher (http://www.sinodefence.com)
- http://www.nti.org/e_research/profiles/NK/Missile/65.html со ссылкой на Christopher F. Foss, ed., Jane's Armour and Artillery 1991-92 (Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Information Group, 1991), p. 719.
- http://cns.miis.edu/archive/country_north_korea/chr6079.htm со ссылкой на Christopher F. Foss, ed., Jane's Armour and Artillery 1991-92 (Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Information Group, 1991), p. 719.