The Avenger short-range surface-to-air missile system (SAM) is designed to engage air targets at ranges of 0.5-5.5 km, altitudes of 0.5-3.8 km on counter courses and inhalation. The complex is equipped with antiaircraft missiles "Stinger" with a thermal homing head and is characterized by a high level of automation, short reaction time, high firepower and mobility. Avenger" SAM system provides combat efficiency both in daytime and at night, in difficult weather conditions.
The complex is designed by the American firm "Boeing Aerospace Company".
In May 1984, the first three launches on air targets in different conditions (in motion, at night and in the rain) and a direct hit were made. All the launches were made by previously non-shooting operators. In August 1984 there were 178 launches on mobile and stationary targets, in day and night conditions, 171 of them were successful. The first contract for production of 325 complexes was concluded in 1987, and in November 1988 the first SAMs were on combat duty at поставлены|.
As of January 1, 2001, there were 1115 Avenger systems in the U.S. Army, Marine Corps and National Guard air defense system. The complex was used to provide air defense for the Allied troops during Operation Desert Storm (1991), in Bosnia and South Korea, was supplied to Taiwan (70 systems) and Egypt (50 systems).
In April 2001, testing of an upgraded version of the Avenger SAM system began. This variant of the complex has new communication equipment that provides target designation and air-detection mapping from superior air defense command posts. The complex is equipped with a new fire control system, navigation system, upgraded detection and tracking devices. Adoption is planned for 2003.
Turkish company "Aselsan Electronic Industry Inc." offers an air defense system PMSS, the concept of which is similar to the air defense system "Avenger".
The main component of the complex is a gyrostabilized platform PMS (Pedestal-Mounted Stinger), on which the "Stinger" SAMs are installed in the TPC (2 packs of 4 each), optical and thermal imaging means of target detection and tracking, laser rangefinder, AN/PPX-3BIFF identification device, control and indication systems, AN/PRC-77 and AN/VRC-47 radios (in future AN/VRC-91 SINCGARS radio communication system may be installed), 12. 7mm machine gun. The PMS platform is mounted on a cross-country vehicle M988 "Hammer" and other types of chassis such as Bv206, M548 and M113AZ. The PMS can be removed from the carrier and used as a stand-alone fire unit in a stationary version. The azimuth angle is 360°, and the position angle is from -10° to +70°. The initial turning of the platform to the target is done manually by the operator using the hand wheel. A 24 V DC source is used to power the electrical components of the system.
In the center of the platform there is an operator's cabin equipped with a transparent screen to monitor the air situation. A marker for the aiming point is projected on this screen. The marker's position corresponds to the direction of rotation of the missile's CNS, and its appearance informs the operator about the capture of the target chosen for firing by the homing head.
The detection system includes CAI's CA-562 optical range sight, Magnavox AN/VLR-1 thermal imager (or IR-18), automatic target tracking device, and laser rangefinder, which allows to detect, capture and automatically track air targets at required ranges. The thermal imaging camera is electrically powered and mounted on the left side below the missile container. It is a self-contained system operating in the wavelength range from 8 to 12 micrometers. The operator accompanies the target visually using an optical sight, or with the help of a thermal imaging camera in bad weather and at night. The system is capable of automatically escorting the target, detecting the distance to the target and firing at a speed of up to 35 km/h on the move.
The Automatic Target Tracker (AVT) provides an automatic tracking module that detects current azimuth and angle misalignment errors and deploys the platform towards the target. A laser rangefinder is mounted on the left side under the thermal imager. The measured range to the target is processed by the fire control system and is used for automatic start up when the target enters the area of reach of the Avenger SAM system. The mark of the permission to open fire in the form of a special symbol appears on the display of the thermal imaging camera and telescope sight. This allows to fire targets at maximum ranges in automatic mode - the operator should only press the start button, immediately select and prepare the next rocket. The high degree of automation of all operations reduces the load on the operator during combat work and dramatically increases the effectiveness of the SAM system as a whole.
To ensure the safety of calculation, the complex is equipped with a remote control panel with a range of up to 50m.
As a means of destruction in the Avenger anti-aircraft missile FIM-92 "Stinger" RMP (Reprogrammable Microprocessor) of various modifications. At present, Raytheon produces modifications of FIM-92D and FIM-92E Block I. 2. 2004 is planned to produce the FIM-92E Block II missile, which will be equipped with an all-view thermal imaging GSN with infrared detector matrix located in the focal plane of the optical system. Avenger" SAM is designed in a modular scheme that allows you to use it and other means of destruction and target detection systems, such as missiles RBS-70 with a laser beam guidance system. In addition to the eight missiles in the TIC in combat position, there are eight "Stinger" in stock. It takes less than 4 minutes to reload.
For self-protection, blocking the blind spot of the Stinger missiles and firing at ground targets, there is a 12.7 mm M3P large-caliber machine gun manufactured by Fabrique Nationale Herstal (Belgium) with a speed of 1100 lb/min and 200 rounds of ammunition. The machine gun is installed on the right side of the platform under a container with missiles.
Avenger" SAM system is fully airborne with C-130 "Hercules" or C-141V "Starlifter" aircraft. On the external sling it can carry helicopters UH-60, CH-47, CH-46, CH-53.
|Defeat height, km||0-3.8|
|Maximum missile speed, M||2.2|
|Mass of the rocket, kg||10.1|
|Weight of combat unit, kg||3|
|The length of the rocket, m||1.52|
|The diameter of the rocket, m||0.07|
|Weight of platform, kg||1134|
|Width with the car, m||2.18|
|Platform length, m||2.13|
|Platform width, m||2.15|
|Maximum speed of the fighting vehicle, km/h.||105|
|Power reserve, km||563|
The main elements of the ATACMS system were tested mainly at the White-Sands test site. The system received its baptism of fire in the desert storm. The ATACMS was used to destroy Iraqi army air defense batteries and communications hubs. During the operation, about 200 trucks and equipment were destroyed. The combat effectiveness of these systems has been quite high.
- Василин Н.Я., Гуринович А.Л. "Зенитные ракетные комплексы" .-Мн.: ООО "Попурри", 2002- 464с.
- Army Technology - Avenger - Low Level Air Defense System