Grad-P lightweight portable jet system

9П132 "Град-П" Партизан

In 1965, the CPSU Central Committee instructed the Ministry of Defense Industry to develop a version of a lightweight portable jet system based on the M-21OF standard projectile for special delivery abroad. In July 1965, the system (index "Grad-P") was developed by organizations 18 and 45 and presented for joint testing. From the side of 64176 (GRAU) the tactical and technical requirements for the development of "Grad-P" system were not issued.

  • NII-147 MOP is the lead performer for the projectile and the system as a whole;
  • CKIB MOS - for the launch unit 9P132 and its component parts;
  • NII-6 MOP - on development of a powder charge and igniter;
  • NITI-11 MOP - on development of the fuse.

Joint tests of a lightweight portable jet system "Grad-P" were carried out at an hour 33491 (range "Rzhevka") from 24.07.65 to 19.08.65. In August 1965, a commission chaired by Colonel G.I. Sterlyaev, an engineer-colonel, tested this system in the amount of 172 shots (commission act No. 3620, report hour 33491 Inventory No. 3668). Joint tests were conducted with positive results (commission act, Inventory No. H-006340, report hourly 33491, Inventory No. H-006341) and the system was recommended for adoption by special units.

The technical documentation, finalized according to the results of joint testing by the organizations of item 18 and item 45, was transferred to plant No. 575 (Kovrov) for serial production. In accordance with the USSR Council of Ministers Decree № 2470-rs of 22.12.65 on the updated technical documentation of chief designers of the system "Grad-P" was produced 20 launchers 9P132 in December 1965, the organization of the items 45 and 180 pcs. - in January-April 1966 by Plant №575.

All starter units in full set and 20 copies of operational documentation were delivered for operation to the consignee "075" in March-April 1966. By the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No.442-137 dated 06.06.1966 the Ministry of Defense Industry was obliged in the second half of 1966 to manufacture and deliver to the consignee "075" through the SCCPP 200 start-up units 9P132. The specified number of launchers was manufactured by Plant No.575 and delivered to the consignee in September-December 1966. The same Resolution provided for the production of 300 launchers by the order of the SPS in 1967 and their transfer to the 64176 base (GRAU) for temporary storage as a reserve for possible deliveries on outfits (extension No 15258, 100-66, part II, p.43). In the first quarter of 1967 Plant №575 produced 120 pcs. of 9P132 launchers.

In addition to South Vietnamese guerrillas, the unit was widely used by Cuban troops in Africa as well as Palestinian militants. The 122 mm portable launchers are known to have been, and can still be, in service in China (see photo), Egypt (see photo), Iran (see photo) (copy of 9P132 known as HM21), Pakistan (see photo), Romania (see photo), Sudan (see photo), Syria (see photo) and Mali (see photo). At the beginning of the 21st century, the Romanian specialists proposed a variant of the NURS M21-OF-S portable firing machine of 122 mm calibre (see photo). The 9P132 was not in service with the Soviet Army.

It should be noted that Iran has one or two versions of the portable launcher with two tubular guides for firing 107 mm caliber turbojet shells (see photo).

Years of operation of the Grad-P complex have proved its high operational reliability and reliability. In the course of combat operations there were cases when partisans hid partisans on flooded rice fields with parts of launchers delivered to the area of firing positions, and at the right moment they were brought into a combat position and fired as smoothly as on the range. Although a number of American experts noted that the Chinese 107mm rocket launcher, due to its small size and weight, is more convenient to transport and use than the 122mm Grad rocket system (see photo). The projectiles could also be launched not from tubular launchers, but from pin-type launchers (see photo), as, for example, it was proposed to launch projectiles in the 30s in Russia (see photo 1 and photo 2).


The 9P132 Portable Unit (see photo) is a tubular guide with a U-slot for initial rotation of the projectile and a light tripod machine with guidance mechanisms and sighting devices. The design of the tubular guide rail is similar to that of the BM-21 combat vehicle of the M-21 Field Rocket System, but its length is 0.5 meters shorter and is 2500 mm.

The cradle guide is mounted on a tripod machine with a constant line of fire. Each of the three supports of the machine is made folding. The front one is equipped with a coulter for increased stability when firing. Guidance mechanisms allow for vertical alignment in the range of angles from +10° to 40°. The horizontal firing angle range (without changing the installation position) is ±7°. The launcher weighs 55 kg in combat position and can be disassembled into two packs: with the barrel (25 kg) and with the machine (28 kg). The time to move the launcher from the camping position to the combat position shall be 2.5 minutes and back 2 minutes. The launcher is guided by the PBO-2 sight and a booster.

Shots are fired by the 9M22M unmanned 122mm unguided rocket projectile, which is dismantled into two sealed parts (see diagram). It has a single-chamber rocket engine and a fragmentation fuse combat unit. The combat unit was completely, without any changes, borrowed from the M-21OF shell. The engine housing was developed on the basis of the M-21OF projectile engine housing. A hermetically sealed remote control equipped with a generator and connected to the launcher by an electric cable 20 m long is used to ensure the launch. The short current pulse generated by the remote control ensures ignition of the projectile pyrophatron. The flame enters the central channel of the rocket motor gunpowder and ignites it. When the propulsion force reaches a certain value, the contact cover of the projectile is broken and the propeller groove starts to rotate. When the projectile descends from the tube, the stabilizer blades are opened and installed under the action of a spring mechanism at a small angle to the longitudinal axis of the projectile.

In general, the Grad-P rocket was 98% unified with the M-21OF for the BM-21 combat vehicle. According to other data, in the 9M22M design 87% of parts were unified with Grad parts. The engines of projectile 9M22M were 75% unified with those of projectile 9M22U. The combat units of 9M22M were fully aligned with the combat unit of 9M22U.

Since 1974, the 9M22M was equipped with a new MRV-U fuse, which had the same installations as the 9E231. The MRV-U fuse had a non-removable safety cap. The 9M22M projectiles with this type of fuse were fired with the safety cap only. When firing 9M22M projectiles without a brake ring with MRV-U fuse, it was necessary to use the tables of firing of 9M22M fragmentation and blast rockets with 9E231 fuse without a brake ring (TS-78), introducing additional correction of minus 120 m for all ranges of firing (with MRV-U fuse the projectile flies further). When firing 9M22M shells with MRV-U brake ring fuse, one should have used the TS-78K firing tables without introducing additional corrections for a new fuse.

Calculation - 5 persons (see calculation with pack).

During the operation of the first serial launchers 9P132, released in 1965, a number of shortcomings were identified. In accordance with the action plan approved by the Deputy Minister of Defense Industry and the commander of the 64176, the following improvements were made to eliminate these shortcomings:

  • dead maneuver of the lifting mechanism flywheel is made no more than 1/10 turn;
  • a transverse risk is applied at the rear quadrant under the quadrant, ensuring a certain position of the quadrant on the site;
  • the handle of the lifting gear flywheel has been extended;
  • elongated carbines on the belts for carrying the machine;
  • the weight of the belt wrench for the projectile has been reduced;
  • introduced annealing of the cotter pins to reduce their brittleness.

At the meeting held on August 29, 1967, "at the State Hydroelectric Power Plant's Inspectorate, a number of wishes were expressed by the representatives of the General Staff of the Ministry of Defense of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) on the modernization of the "Grad-P" jet system, in particular:

  • increase the range of the Grad P launcher (over 10 km), without increasing the total weight of the unit;
  • find a way to shorten the barrel length, make the launcher lighter;
  • mount 3-4 detachable barrels on one launcher, so that 3-4 projectiles could be fired in 5 minutes, this will avoid the enemy's return fire (now it takes 10-15 minutes to launch and shells);
  • Consider using the Grad-P launcher against the helicopter when landing from the helicopter, when the helicopters are still at 200-300 m altitude;
  • provide an electric cable and increase the reliability of the control panel (there was a failure and the control panel, the reason is unknown)".

In accordance with Decree No. 722-rs of 08 April 1968 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and Order No. 70 of 20 April 1968 of the Minister of Mechanical Engineering, work was carried out to modernize the projectile and launch unit "Grad-P" according to the schedule of the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering and Ministry of Defense. Taking into account the wishes of the Vietnamese side, the schedule provided for the following major improvements:

  • to increase the range of fire;
  • increase the length of the barrels of the launcher;
  • reduce the height of the tripod of the launcher;
  • to work out the possibility of creating a launcher with two barrels;
  • create an airtight capping on the projectile;
  • to determine the possibility of firing M-21OF shells from the 9P132 launcher;
  • to carry out range tests of the projectile with the incendiary combat unit (equipped with a firearm) 9M22MS and some others.

The work on modernization of "Grad-P" system was carried out by the following enterprises:

  • The G4575 company is the leading organization in the system, a projectile developer and supplier of projectile samples;
  • X-5498 enterprise - developer of powder charge and ignition system;
  • Firm G-4406, developer of the launcher system
  • enterprise of the p/o V-8916 - detonating device;

Tests of the modernized system "Grad-P" were carried out at an hour 33491 under the program №232 of the Ministry of Defense agreed with the VP, out. №04244 of 31.5.68, the enterprise p/o G-4575 in the period June-September 1968 in the amount of 292 shots. Of these, 292 were fired:

  • 228 rounds of modernized projectiles (9M22MD);
  • 54 rounds of Grad-P system shells. (9M22M);
  • 10 rounds of M-21OF shells.

Tests were conducted from the 9P132 launcher and pilot launchers with one and two shafts (the tripod is 220 mm lower in height and the shafts are 500 mm shorter than from the 9P132). The projectiles were assembled and prepared for firing in the military unit 33491.

The 9M22MD projectile with extended range was created as a result of development, experimental checks and firing tests. The main differences between 9M22MD and 9M22M are as follows:

  • instead of a 9.52 kg powder charge, a charge of 11.9 kg of VIC-2D powder was used from PSI-12M;
  • nozzle diameter dk = 35.5 mm, da = 17.5 mm, instead of "k = 13 mm and da = 23.5 mm for projectile 9M22M.
  • The tail diaphragm design has been changed.

Key points of conclusions in/h 33491:

  • The extended range projectile with the 9P132 launcher and the experimental single-barrel and double-barrel projectile functions normally: the trajectory is correct, there were no projectile failures on the trajectory.
  • The extended range projectile when fired from the 9P132 launcher provides the following characteristics:
  • the experimental range is 15 km, i.e. approximately 4 km more than the 9M22M projectile;
  • heavier range when firing at the maximum range:
    • in WD/Hop range = 1/108
    • by range WB/Hop = 1/129
  • The 9M22M projectile's range of fire and heap of combat at the maximum range are almost the same for the 9P132 and pilot launchers with one and two barrels.
  • The single barrel pilot launcher is more compact and convenient than the 9P132:
  • the barrel of the 9P132 prototype PU is 500 mm shorter and 2.8 kg lighter than the 9P132;
  • the bag with tripod prototype PU is 100 mm shorter and does not rest on a soldier's legs when moving;
  • prototype launchers with one and two barrels and 9P132 installation are unstable (tilted) when firing long range projectiles at elevation angles up to 20°-25°.
  • to prevent the PU from tipping over when firing on the front support, it is necessary to place the load weighing about 50 kg. Two loads from the rocket parts of the projectile filled with soil can be used as cargo.
  • Due to the high hit rate of fire, the direction of fire of the launchers must be taken after each shot.
  • The rate of fire of pilot launchers with two barrels is slightly higher than that of PU with one barrel. However, in a dual barrel machine, the sector of the aiming angle selection is limited (the upper barrel on the right is overlapped) and the number of calculations must be increased to carry the second barrel.
  • Special covers ensure the tightness of the projectiles when placed in water, but the strength of the covers is insufficient.
  • Firing of 9M22MS projectile, MSO and SCS fire hydrants showed unsatisfactory firing and ignition effect both when shooting on the ground and on targets.
  • The firing of the 9M22M projectile with the 9M22S incendiary ordnance showed the fundamental capability of the 9M22S projectile warhead when fired from the Grad-P system.
  Developer Manufacturer
Cartridge 9M22M NII-147 Tula, plant 176 (assembly - Selzo, s-d 121).
Powder charge 9X111M NII-6 Perm, plant №98
Ignition 9X227M NII-6 Perm, plant №98
Fuse 9E231 NITI-11 Kazan, plant №144


Weight in combat position, kg 55
Length in combat position, mm 2500
Width in combat position, mm 1500
Height in combat position, mm 1500
Speed, gunshot/min. 1
Calculation, man. 5
Cartridge 9M22M
The projectile caliber, mm 122
The length of the projectile with the fuse, mm. 1905(1930)
Relative projectile length, hummingbird. 15,8
Weight, kg:
            - final equipment
            - gunpowder charge
            - explosive charge
            - combat unit
            - warfare metal
            - missile section
            - fuze
            - igniter
Type of equipment TGAF-5
Motor running time in the temperature range from +15C to +50C, s 1,23-1,06
Maximum range of fire (normalized), km 10,8
Heap when shooting at maximum range (medium):
            - at maximum range (average): W / Hop
            - up the WB/Hop line
Number of slaughterhouse shards, pcs. 3400
Average weight of half-finished splinter, d 3
Quantity of killing splinters per 1 kg of body metal, pcs. 280
Just fragments, pcs. 6200
The given zone of shrapnel hitting of fallen and openly located enemy's manpower at the maximum range, ha. 0,106
Determined zone of blast action, ha. 0,0045

Journal No. AO57-67 w/h 64176 was approved for serial production of the projectile with the following characteristics:

Name Meaning
1 Caliber, mm 122 
2 Length with fuse (maximum), mm 1934 
3 Weight in final form, kg 46
4 Powder charge weight, kg 9,44
5 Weight of explosive charge, kg 6,35
6 Weight of combat unit, kg 18,4
7 Weight of the rocket part, kg 26,9
8 Fuse weight, kg 0,95
9 Name of BB TGAF-5
10 Temperature range of application between +15ºC and +50ºC
11 Maximum range of fire (normalized), km 10,8
12 Firing range at maximum range and normal temperature  
  - at a distance Width/X≤1/150
  - in the direction of Wb/X≤1/70

In the incompletely signed magazine of the military unit 64176 No. A057-67 for the first division of the military unit 64176-C on the coordination of the technical documentation for manufacturing of rockets for the light portable rocket system "Grad-P". (index GRAU 9M22M), compiled by the senior officer of the I department in/unit 64176-S Grishaev M.I. and approved by the commander of the military unit 64176-D on February 20/24, 1967, it is said that as a result of the conducted development of the Research Institute-147 (Tula) the projectile 9M22M for the light portable jet system "Grad-P" with the following main characteristics was created:

Name of characteristic Actually obtained in a sample
The projectile caliber, mm 122
The length of the projectile with the fuse, mm. 1905
Weight of projectile in final equipment, kg 46
Powder charge weight, kg 9,52
Weight of explosive charge, kg 6,4
Weight of combat unit, kg 18,3
Weight of the rocket part, kg 26,83
Fuse weight, kg 0,94
Type of equipment TGAF-5
Motor running time in the temperature range from +15°C to 50°C, s 1,23÷1,06
Maximum range of fire (normalized), kg 10,8
Heap when shooting at maximum range (medium):  
at a distance WD/Hop = 1/206
in the direction of WB/Hop = 1/98

For the reception of serial batches heap when shooting at Chmach at normal temperature can take Wd / X = 1/150, Wb / X = 1/70.

The document signed on 24/25 August 1966 contains the following data for 9M-22M:

Caliber, mm 122
Weight of final projectile, kg 46,0
Weight of combat unit, kg 18,4
fuse weight 0,95
explosive weight 6,4
Weight of the rocket part, kg 26,9
including but not limited to  
reactive charge weight, kg 9,5
ignition weight, kg 0,14
The length of the projectile, mm 1930
Relative projectile length, hummingbird. 15,8
Maximum range of fire, m. 11000
Heap of firing at maximum range:  
TD/H 1/211
W/X 1/90

    Main technical characteristics of 9M-22M projectile combat unit

Weight of metal in combat unit, kg 12,9
Number of useful fragments, pcs. 3400
Average weight of useful splinter, d 3
Quantity of useful fragments per 1 kg of body metal, pcs. 280
Just fragments, pcs. 6200
The given zone of shrapnel hitting of fallen and openly located enemy's manpower at the maximum range, ha. 0,106
Determined zone of blast action, ha. 0,0045
Type of equipment TGAF-5

The shells of the 9M-22M head and missile part were manufactured by deep drawing method; this technology predetermined the choice of steel grades. The head part was made of low-carbon steel P11, and the missile part was made of low-carbon alloy steel G2, providing in working condition the strength of 90 kg / mm2.

The main design characteristics and technological features of both shells are given below.

Dimensions and weight Header Missile section
Diameter, mm 121 122
Length, mm 620 975
Wall thickness, mm 6 3,1
Weight, kg 7,6 9,29
Material Low Carbon Steel P11 Low carbon alloy steel G2
Blank, type, dimensions mm, weight Strip steel
12.5 kg
Strip. billet ~ 20 kg
Strip steel
12.47 kg
Workpiece strip ~ 20 kg
Main technological process operations 1) heat treatment
2) extractor hood (9 transitions)
3) Interoperative thermal and chemical treatment.
4) mechanical treatment
5) application of heat protection coating
1) heat treatment
2) extractor hood
3) Interoperative thermal and chemical treatment
4) mechanical treatment
5) application of heat protection coating

The table is made according to the data presented by Research Institute-147 (incl. 4510ss from 1.7.66) and Plant №176 (incl. 5580ss from 2.8.66). .

The main alloying element in G2 steel was nickel. Given that nickel in the Soviet Union was very scarce, largely imported from abroad (Cuba), the question of whether it could be supplied to the defense industry to produce 9M22M, especially during wartime, should have been specifically studied. It was also necessary to take into account that significant quantities of nickel would be lost in the production process with chips, scraps, defective items, etc.

The "Partisan" system had the following characteristics (compared to the "Grad-P" system):

Name of characteristic "Partisan" "Grad-P"
1 Weight of projectile, kg 47,7  46 
2 Maximum firing range, km 15  10,8 
3 Weight of guide tube with stop, kg 19  22 
4 Length of guide tube, mm 2000  2500 
5 Height of the tripod to the sighting eyepiece in combat position, mm 1110  1330 
6 Height at maximum range (tabular)    
  - at a distance 1/115 1/211
  -in a direction of 1/121 1/90


In the period from October 10, 1969 to December 20, 1969, at the P6766 substation enterprise, the "cassette warfare unit for antipersonnel mining to the "Partizan" system was tested (subject MKV2-6I-69)". See photo.

See also the Conclusion on the results of the tests of the upgraded Grad-P mobile jet system. (cipher - "Partisan")

Alekseev Alexander Timofeyevich, worker of the Central KIB SOO Alekseev took part in the creation of the launch unit 9P132.


  1. 122-мм система «Град»
  2. Ганичев А.Н. Разработка основ теории проектирования и создание цельнотянутых артиллерийских гильз и реактивных систем залпового огня. Доклад по совокупности НИОКР, представленных на соискание ученой степени доктора технических наук. Тула: 1973. – С. 105,195 (рассекречено).
  3. ГАУ ТО "ГА". Ф. Р-3428. Оп. 1. Д. 992. Л. 56,76,77.
  4. ГУ "ГАТО". Ф. Р-3428. Оп. 1. Д. 1007. Л. 20. З А К Л Ю Ч Е Н И Е 2-го Главного управления по ОКР "Модернизированная система "Град-П" (шифр  "Партизан") (ГУ "ГАТО". Ф. Р-3428. Оп. 1. Д. 1007. Л. 18.). Подлинник.
  5. ГАУ ТО "ГА". Ф. Р-3428. Оп. 1. Д. 1093. Л. 61-63.
  6. ГАУ ТО “ГА”. Ф. Р-3428. Оп. 1. Д. 1128. Л. 49,115.
  7. Гуров С.В. "Реактивные системы залпового огня. Обзор" .-Тула.: Изд. дом "Пересвет", 2006- С.78-79.
  8. Люди, годы, залпы. 60 лет ФГУП “ГНПП “Сплав”/ ФГУП “ГНПП “Сплав”: Составитель Е.М. Мартынов, под общей редакцией Н.А. Макаровца; ред. коллегия: Г.А. Денежкин, Р.А. Кобылин, Г.И. Блинов. – Тула: ОАО “Тульская типография”, 2009. – С.7.
  9. Гуров С.В. Развитие систем реактивной артиллерии для реактивных снарядов калибра 122 мм // Мир оружия: история, герои, коллекции. Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции, 21-22 октября 2016 г. / Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение культуры "Тульский государственный музей оружия". – Тула, 2016. – С. 83. (следует внести изменение вместо  "... и поставке Полевой реактивной системы "Град-П" и ..." должно быть "... и поставке Легкой переносной реактивной системы "Град-П" и ...").
  10. Премия имени С.И. Мосина: из века в век. – М.: Издательский дом «Оружие и технологии», 2018. – С. 143.
  11. Рекламный листок по румынской переносной реактивной установке.
  12. Указания о стрельбе снарядами 9М22М с взрывателем МРВ-У. Вклейка №2 в ТС-78, ТС-78К. Изд. №5/1527. Зак.949. 11.11.74 г. - Взрыватель МРВ-У. - Министерство обороны СССР, 1973.
  13. ЦАМО РФ. Ф. 81. Оп. 856348сс. Д. 53. Л. 97-98.
  14. ЦАМО РФ. Ф. 81. Оп. 856348сс. Д. 59. Л. 90,91,93,97,98,194-196,329,393,394,399,400.
  15. ЦАМО РФ. Ф. 81. Оп. 856348сс. Д. 97. Л. 40,43,46,331.
  16. ЦАМО РФ. Ф. 81. Оп. 856348сс. Д. 202. Л. 210,211,349-353.
  17. Шунков В.Н. "Ракетное оружие" .-Мн.: ООО "Попурри", 2001- 528с.
  21. Jane's Armour and Artillery 1991-92. - P.722.
  22. Jane's Armour and Artillery 2000-2001. - P.788,798.
  23. (15.01.2012 г.)

Other languages:


Control sys.:
11 km.