The development of the 273-mm multiple launch rocket system has been underway in China since the late 50s by plant N 123. Work on this project was interrupted during the cultural revolution and was resumed only in 1978.
During the development and testing of the system, designers faced a number of difficulties, the main of which was the extremely low heap and accuracy of firing of uncontrollable projectiles, due to insufficient rigidity of the artillery part of the launcher, poor quality of the projectiles and their engines. The system's test failures questioned the expediency of continuing the work on this project, as it directly competed with the 122mm RSW (later designated "Type-90") project of plant N 5137, which had the same range of fire. Nevertheless, taking into account the much greater potential to increase the range and combat efficiency of 273 mm missiles, it was decided to continue work in this direction. The designers abandoned the use of rail rails in favor of box rails, which reduce the interaction of launch missiles, and resolved a set of issues that excludes vibrations and swinging of the launcher during a salvo.
Small-batch production of RCDs designated "Type 83". (export designation WM-40), started in 1984 . At present, this system is in small numbers in service with individual artillery divisions of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
Although the Type 83 MLRS has not been deployed in mass numbers, work on this project has undoubtedly played a major role in the development of future generations of Chinese multiple launch rocket systems. The Type 83 MLRS was discontinued in 1988, and was replaced by the 273mm WM-80 system, with much higher accuracy and range, mobility and firepower, in the export list of Chinese NORINCO Corporation.
Type 83" is a part of RESO:
- self-propelled launcher,
- 273mm unguided rockets,
- fire control system
- transport-charging machine.
The launcher is based on the tracked artillery tractor "Type 60-1". Instead of a cargo platform, a swivel frame is installed at the rear of the tractor, on which the artillery part of the launcher is mounted. The location of the crew cabin and engine remained unchanged.
The artillery part of the launcher includes a package of four box rails, lifting and turning mechanisms, sighting devices and related hydraulic and electrical equipment. The lifting mechanism is hydraulically operated and provides vertical guidance of the launcher in the range of angles from +5.5° to +56°. The angle of horizontal guidance is 20°. To ensure the necessary stability when shooting at the rear of the chassis there are two stops with hydraulic jacks. It takes about one minute to deploy the unit on standby. Charging of the launcher is carried out by a transport and charging machine equipped with crane equipment.
The 273-mm unguided rockets (NUR) used for firing the Type 83 rocket launcher are stabilized in flight by four-blade stabilizers and rotation. The projectiles have a 138 kg fragmentation head unit, but chemical and cassette head units are also possible. The projectile has a maximum speed of 811 m/s during flight. The projectile can be fired in single shots or in volleys. The round deviation is 1.2% and 0.7% of the Azimuth and Range respectively.
The tracked chassis of the launcher has a V-shaped twelve-cylinder diesel engine with an output of 300 hp. Transmission is mechanical. Five large-diameter support rollers are mounted on each side of the chassis and there are no support rollers. The suspension of the support rollers is individual torsional. Driving wheels are located at the rear. When driving on the highway the launcher has a maximum speed of 60 km/h. On rough terrain its passability is rather high. It is able to overcome walls up to 0.6 m high and 2.2 m wide ditches. Without prior preparation, the launcher forces fords up to 1 m deep. It has a travel reserve of 400 km on the highway.
|Length of projectile, mm||4753|
|Weight of projectile, kg||484|
|Number of guides||4|
|Maximum range of fire, km||40|
|Minimal range of fire, km||23|
|Weight of launcher in combat position, t||17.542|
|Dimensions of the launcher in camping position, m||6.85*2.6*3.18|
|The duration of the volley is full ammunition, s||7.5|
|Recharging time, min||15-20|
- China-Defense :: Brief History of PLA's Type 83 273mm
- Chinese Defence Today :: 273 mm Multiple Rocket Launcher (http://www.sinodefence.com)
- Шунков В.Н. "Ракетное оружие" .-Мн.: ООО "Попурри", 2001- 528с.