Fighting operation of Tor-M1 complex

Заряжание ТПК в боевую машину

The TPK is loaded into a combat vehicle (VM) by a transport and charging machine. Before recharging, the front removable cover is removed from the TPC, and the protection of the inner cavities of the TPC with missiles is provided by a disposable protective sealing device. The TPKs are installed in the war machine shaft in a vertical position. The combat vehicle is mounted in the longitudinal and transverse directions. From the longitudinal movement of the TPK is fixed by fixing the front bends of the TPK by gripping the BM for supporting plates. The transverse fixation is provided by the combat vehicle pins entering the two holes in the front flexodrilles and by the BM guides and T-slots in the middle flexodrilles entering the BM guides. When charged, the installation of literal frequencies (addresses of rockets) on the missiles and docking electrical connectors TPC and the fighting vehicle.

The missile flight in the process of combat application has three characteristic stages: ejection, turning towards the target (declination) and pointing the missile at the target by radio commands from the ground facilities of the complex. The missile flight is preceded by the operation of onboard equipment in the "Preparation", "Standby" and "Launch" modes. In the "Waiting" mode, which, in principle, may be absent, within 0.05 s after the end of the "Preparation" mode the power supply of on-board radio equipment is switched from the ground source of alternating voltages to the on-board one. The duration of "Standby" mode may be up to 60s.

Preparation for start and start up.

Preparation of the missile for launch is carried out using the equipment of the launch vehicle. In the process of preparation is carried out:

  • promotion of onboard electric machine current converter and autopilot gyroscopes from ground power supply;
  • powering up the on-board equipment with all kinds of voltages consumed;
  • introduction of declination commands into the autopilot, which are worked out by the rocket in flight independently;
  • control of the safety circuit of the safety executive mechanism;
  • control of launching of catapult pyropatrons;
  • control of the initial state of onboard automatics;
  • with switching to the electric-machine converter mode the on-board consumers switching to it via AC circuits;
  • receipt of a number of service commands and signals.

The design of the war machine and the launch device allow the missiles to be guided along the azimuth to align the declination plane with the direction of the target. If no Launch commands are received immediately after completion of training, the missile is put into Standby mode, during which time it can be launched or cancelled at any time with all supply voltages, commands and signals turned off.

The "Launch" command is given:

  • The use of an on-board chemical power supply (OBS);
  • with the output of the on-board chemical power supply to the mode - the ignition from it of the on-board equipment in parallel with the ignition from the ground source;
  • input, if required, of special one-time commands to the radio detonator, introducing the modes of operation on low-flying target and in passive interference;
  • memorization on the autopilot of the entered declination commands;
  • deregulation of gyroscopes;
  • entering and recording the missile address in the radio control unit.

Upon completion of these operations, a command is issued from the starting automation equipment to detonate the catapult pyropropatron, which ignites the catapult powder charge. As the force on the catapult rod increases, which is transferred to the rocket body, two locking bolts are cut off and the rocket starts to move along the TLC guides. With the beginning of this movement disconnects the plug of the on-board electrical connector, and then, due to the mechanical contact with special stops on the catapult (see description), turn the levers on the third compartment of the missile, closing the contacts of the corresponding push-button switches. This results in the following

  • the gas power generator for the steering gears is started;
  • a time delay generator is activated in the command block, which issues commands for starting the declination gas generator and for starting the rocket engine:
  • a backup pyropropatron with a one-second delay in triggering is launched. This pyropropatron duplicates the launch of the rocket engine. At the end of the stroke, the catapult rod is braked by compressing the gas in the cylinder and buckling a special brake tube to reduce the impact load on the container. The rocket, having gained the necessary speed, continues to move on inertia to the height of 15-20 m.

Missile flight

With the beginning of movement under the action of the missile sock there is a destruction of the cover of the protective and sealing device TPK. Immediately after the missile leaves the TPK time relay gives a command to zero the steering machines. Autopilot on the basis of information about the angles of pitch and course, obtained from the equipment of the launch automation, generates a control signal by a given algorithm n sends it to the steering machines. The rudders are deflected, due to their rotation is disengaged spring mechanisms and rudder consoles are opened, and the spring mechanisms are reset to the ground. By this time the declination system gas generator is started and the gas enters the gas-jet steering devices, creating a reactive force on the deflected rudders. The missile body starts turning (declination) by an angle, the magnitude of which depends on the trajectory of the subsequent radio-controlled flight: from the minimum angle when firing at the upper short-range of the interception zone to the maximum angle when firing at a low-flying target at the short-range of the interception zone. The rocket engine shall be launched by a signal from the command post or, in the absence of this signal, from the launch duplicate pyropropatron located in the ignition block on the front engine bottom. The flight time of the rocket with the engine running 12s. During this time, the rocket covers a distance of about 8 km, the maximum speed achieved at the launch site of the flight, 850 m / s.

During the launch, the rocket is ejected vertically by catapult at a speed of about 25 m/s. The inclination of the SAM at a given angle, the magnitude and direction of which is entered before the start of the autopilot from the guidance station, is carried out before the launch of the rocket engine as a result of the combustion products of the special gas generator through four two-nozzle blocks of the gas distributor, installed at the base of the aerodynamic rudder. Gas ducts leading to oppositely directed nozzles are blocked, depending on the angle of rotation of the rudder. Combining the aerodynamic rudder and the gas distribution unit into a single unit allowed to exclude the use of a special drive for the declination system. The gas-dynamic device inclines the rocket in the required direction, and then stops its rotation before switching on the solid fuel engine.

The ASD engine is launched at an altitude of 16-21 m from the ground (either after the specified one-second delay from the start or after reaching the angle of deviation of the rocket axis from the vertical 50°). In this way, the entire RTR pulse is used to speed the missile towards the target. After launch, the rocket starts to gain a speed of 700-800 m/s at a range of 1.5 km. The command guidance process begins at a range of 250 m. Due to a wide range of linear dimensions (from 3-4 to 20-30 m) and parameters of target movement (from 10 to 6000 m in height and from 0 to 700 m/s in speed), for optimal coverage of high-flying targets, shards of BC from the pointing station on board the SAM are issued delayed triggering values, depending on the speed of approach of the missile to the target. When the missile approaches the target on command, the transmitter of the detonator starts to irradiate the target. Upon accumulation of a certain number of pulses reflected from the target and received by the radio detonator, the executive circuitry of the radio detonator generates a command to detonate the safety executive mechanism (PIM). The safety executive mechanism on which the targets of the warhead initiation are withdrawn provides reliable protection against its unintentional detonation under all operating conditions and at missile launch - until the safety steps are removed in flight. At start and normal operation of the rocket engine on a signal about presence of pressure in the combustion chamber (from the pressure signalling device) and about presence of a longitudinal overload of required duration (from the inertial stop) PIM is started. After that on command of explosion from a radio detonator the fire chain of PIM is triggered and there is an explosion of a combat unit. At low altitudes, the underlay is selectively selected and the radio detonator only detonates from the target. If the normal flight of the missile is disrupted, the transfer of flight control commands from the guidance station can be stopped. In this case, from the onboard radio control equipment at a certain interval of time to the safety executive mechanism is given a command to eliminate the missile, which is used to detonate the combat unit.