Anti-aircraft guided missile 9M32M

  1. the haunting head;                                                                                                                                    
  2. wheels;                                                                               
  3. steering compartment;
  4. combat compartment;
  5. propulsion system;
  6. fenders;
  7. a, b - centering belts.

The anti-aircraft missile consists of four interlocking compartments: head 1, which is a thermal homing head; rudder 3, which houses flight control equipment; combat 4, which consists of a shrapnel-supply unit with an incoming fuse; propulsion system 5.

The missile is guided by the proportional approach method, in which the control signal is proportional to the absolute angular velocity of the target missile line.

Proportional Approximation Missile Guidance Scheme

The essence of the method is to reduce to zero the angular velocity of the target missile ligament, which will ensure that the missile meets the target at a predetermined point.

At the beginning of the flight, the missile does not fly to the preemptive point and the angular velocity of the target missile line is not zero. The homing head measures this angular speed and produces a control command by its size. As a result, the rudders create a control force (the control force is understood as the aerodynamic force arising at the rudders in their deviation) in a certain direction. Under the influence of the aerodynamic control force, the missile begins to rotate relative to the center of gravity, there is an angle of attack (ie, the angle between the velocity vector and the longitudinal axis of the missile), which creates a lifting force.

Under the action of the resulting lifting force, the missile changes its trajectory so that the angular velocity of the missile-target line is reduced to zero.

The missile's flight control system is designed to implement the selected guidance method.

A single-channel homing gyroscopic head is used as an angular velocity meter for the target missile line. The construction of onboard equipment is based on the principle of single-channel control of rotating rocket with the executive body working in relay mode (steering machine with rudder). The essence of the method of single-channel control is that one executive body, using the rotation of the rocket, to create a control force in any direction of space.

Warm SAMONOVED VOICE (WARNING VOICE) is designed to generate a control signal proportional to the angular velocity of the line of sight (the line of the missile-target), ωл.c. It is a gyroscopic tracking device, which continuously combines the optical axis of the lens coordinator, which perceives infrared (IR) radiation from the target, with the direction of this target. Structurally, the TGS consists of a tracker target coordinator (SC) and an autopilot (AP). Translated with (free version)

  • The target tracking coordinator is designed to continuously and automatically determine the angle of mismatch between the coordinate axis and the target missile line. In order to implement the proportional approach method, the target coordinator's axis must continuously monitor the target during the pointing process, i.e., automatically set along the target missile line. This is achieved by using a target tracking coordinator, consisting of the coordinator himself and a gyroscopic automatic target tracking system. A free three-stage gyroscope is a component of the target tracking coordinator of the homing head. The main property of a free gyroscope is that the axis of its own rotation of the gyro rotor does not change its direction in space. Since the optical axis of the lens is aligned with the axis of rotation of the rotor, the field of view of the homing head remains stable in space with all tilts and turns of the rocket body.
  • The autopilot is part of a closed loop control of the missile and is designed to convert the control signal from the output of the electronic block of the tracking coordinator and generate a control signal for the rocket wheels. The need to convert the control signal due to the fact that the signal at the rotor speed gyro can not directly control the rocket rudders, as the frequency of the control signal should be equal to the speed of the rocket, which is not stabilized and varies in flight from 10 to 20 r / sec. In the autopilot, the control signal from the output of the electronic block of the tracking coordinator, going at the speed of the gyroscope, is pre-converted to the control signal at the speed of the rocket.

The OTHER RULE is designed to house the elements of the rocket flight control equipment and the onboard power supply. The rudder compartment housing contains a steering machine, turbo generator, demodulator, angular velocity sensor, powder pressure accumulator, stabilizer-rectifier, socket, activation unit.

  • The powder pressure accumulator is designed to supply the powder gases of the on-board power source turbine generator and the steering machine during the flight of the rocket. The powder pressure accumulator works in the following way: an electrical impulse triggers an electric ignition device that ignites the smoke powder hood. The ignition is then transferred to the pyrotechnic firecracker and the powder charge. Powder gases pass through a filter and are fed to the steering wheel and turbine generator.
  • The rudder serves to transfer the aerodynamic rudders from one extreme position and another during the flight of the rocket. It is a gas-fired control electrical signal generated by the TGS.
  • The onboard power supply unit is designed to power the rocket's onboard equipment during flight. It consists of a turbogenerator and a rectifier stabilizer.
  • Angular velocity sensor (CRS) produces an electrical signal proportional to the angular velocity of the missile relative to its transverse axes. This signal is used to dampen the missile's vibrations.
  • The demodulator is designed to convert the amplitude modulated signal from the angular velocity sensor into a low-frequency signal whose amplitude is proportional to the deflection angle of the sensor pendulum.

The Battle Oxec consists of a combat unit and a fuse.

  • Shrapnel and explosive reactive warheads are designed to engage air targets.
  • The fuse is designed to detonate the combat unit when the missile meets a target or when the missile self-destructs. The fuse is of electromechanical type, with shock sensors, with long-range deployment and self-liquidation mechanism. It has two safety stages, which are removed only in flight, thus ensuring the safety of the complex during launch, storage and transportation.

PROPULSION SYSTEM. The solid propulsion system is designed to eject the missile from a pipe, give it an angular velocity of rotation, accelerate it to an average speed of 500 m/s and maintain this speed in flight. The propulsion system consists of an ejection engine and a dual-mode marching engine, which is ignited by a time-beam igniter triggered by an ejection engine. The combustion chamber of the marching and ejection engines is formed by separating a thin-walled steel chamber from the bottom of the glass. The thin-walled chamber consists of a shell with a spherical bottom. On the outer surface of the cowls there are belts that guide the missiles as they travel through the tube.

  • The ejection engine is designed to eject the missile from a pipe at a speed of 28 m/s and give it an angular velocity of 20 rpm. A rubber O-ring is used to prevent gas breakthrough between the exhaust and marching engine chambers.
  • Two-mode single-chamber marching engine is designed to accelerate the rocket to an average speed of 500 m/sec in the first mode and maintain this speed in flight in the second mode. The marching engine consists of a thin-walled chamber, an elastic ring attached to the spherical bottom of the chamber by welding.
  • The ray igniter is designed to ignite the dual-mode marching engine at a safe distance for the anti-aircraft gunner.

PIPE AND POWER SOURCE. The pipe serves as a capping device for the rocket during its carrying, transportation and storage of the complex for aiming and launching the rocket, while it protects the anti-aircraft gunner from the powder gases of the ejection engine. A disposable power source provides energy for preparing the launch and starting of the rocket. It supplies a constant voltage of 22 V and 40 V electronic block of the launch mechanism, the homing head (before the output on the BIP mode), the circuit of the fuse, electric ignition of the powder pressure accumulator and the ejector engine.

Tactical and technical characteristics
9M32M rocket
Caliber, mm 72
Length (with folding wings), mm 1440
Weight (kerb weight), kg 9,8
Weight of BB, kg 0,37
Weight of engine charges, kg 4,2
Departure velocity from the pipe, m/sec. 28
Average flight speed on the march at t=+15ºC, m/s 500
Operation time of the on-board power supply, sec. not less than 11
Guidance method proportional approximation
Control System homing single-channel
Self-liquidation time, sec. 14-17
Homing Head
Head type thermal, monitoring, passive
Field of view, º 1,5
Maximum bearing angle, º ±40
Maximum angular tracking speed, deg/sec:  
at the start of 9
in flight 12